Patuone Hoskins Whānau Trust Papakāinga

MIHI / PEPEHA                                                                                              

Ko Huruiki te maunga
Ko Whāngaruru te moana
Ko Ngāti hau ki Uta
Ko Ngāti Wai ki tai

This project is about the return of a whānau to ancestral land over a period of 50 years, and includes the uri of Patuone who all wish to return to the kāinga to live one day.

PROJECT SUMMARY                                                                                  
The development proposal document focused on a 10 dwelling integrated Papakāinga masterplan which allowed for a variety of house types (1-5 bedrooms), communal gardening and recreation areas, pedestrian linkages to Te Patunga Bay and, most importantly, no fences between dwellings enabling and requiring a communal maintenance plan to be instituted.

This Papakāinga site is unique in that there is no road access and no council provided infrastructure services in terms of sewerage, storm water systems, water reticulation, power supply, and telephone/data. There is also no rubbish collection with all recycling and refuse having to be boated out to Ōhāwini, which is the nearest accessible settlement.


 Project Name
 Patuone Hoskins Whānau Papakāinga
 Iwi / Hapū
 Rohe / Location
 Pōike C Block, Te Patunga Whāngaruru harbour Northland
 District Council / Zoning status
 Whangarei District Council
 Ownership structure
 The Patuone Hoskins Whānau Trust was set up in 1996 under the provisions of the Ture Whenua Act 1993 on the instigation of Patuone Hoskins with all 5 adult children becoming trustees.

All houses are Individually owned by whānau
 The original 1961 bach close the water was built from a demolished Ngāti Hau wharenui at Whakapara and has provided the central base for the papakāinga which now consists of 3 other whare of various sizes.

A further 10 houses are proposed
 Timber frame on timber piles
 Key funders
 Whānau cash reserves, HNZC partial loan


In 1960 Patuone Hoskins, great grandson of Eru Nehua purchased the neighbouring Poike C block from over 100 related owners. This 167ha block consists of a large wetland, regenerating and virgin native bush as well as coastal margins. Te Patunga bay and the valley behind face north and are sheltered from prevailing south westerly winds by large bush-clad hills. A puna (spring) on the nearby Omanu Block provides water for most of the papakāinga, supplemented by rainwater tanks.

From 2002 to the present 3 further Papakāinga homes (in addition to the original 2 bedroom bach) have been built as follows:

  • Pikiararoa – 110m2 - 2 bedroom plus large mezzanine (for communal sleeping) with large dining deck. Timber frame on timber piles. Composting toilet and grey water system
  • Te Kahu – 90m2 - 1 bedroom plus large mezzanine house with large dining deck. Timber frame on timber piles. Composting toilet and grey water system
  • Mihitai – 36m2 - 1 bedroom cabin, large dining deck. Composting toilet and grey water system


Key Outcomes

  • A deep connection to the whenua held by all Trustees and the desire to establish a holistic papakāinga for the growing whānau of 5 children and 11 grandchildren.
  • Whānau have been able to draw upon their own skills bring both professional and practical skills to the development process including legal, architectural and building experience.
  • Kaitiakitanga – ability of the Hoskins whānau to strengthen kaitiaki relationships of their whenua tūpuna and takutaimoana. Care to not clear large trees and to ensure designs and materials complimented the natural environment.
  • Kōtahitanga – needing to work together as part of a combined whānau working group to plan, advance, build and manage the papakāinga
  • Whānaungatanga – assisting individual whānau members to plan and build their papakāinga homes.

Key Challenges

  • Lack of awareness of council planning staff who were not even aware of what a papakāinga was
  • At the time the Coastal Countryside zoning was designed around pastoral farming and allowed for two dwellings per land block (i.e. a farmer and sharemilker) with traditional Māori living patterns not reflected in the district plan in any way.
  • Our whānau were able to convince the planner that getting signatures from the owners of 17 surrounding Māori land blocks was
    • not appropriate given the distance from the blocks (lack of effects) and
    • not practicable with each multiply owned block having 10s – 100s of owners.
  • Letters of support from the Ngāti Wai Trust Board and neighbouring Omanu D Whānau Trust were provided and did assist with the successful application.
  • Funding with 2 of the whare having to be built from cash reserves as no bank would lend on Māori land and the owners earned too much to qualify for Housing New Zealand Corporation (HNZC) loan products available at the time.
  • One house (Te Kahu) was partially built from an HNZC Loan however the procurement process was exhaustive with staff involved at the time being almost obstructive of the process.
  • The final barrier was in transporting both materials and construction expertise to a remote site with everything having to come in by boat. Building in the winter months was problematic with rough seas while the remote site also reduced the choices of skilled tradespeople to work on the projects.
  • The lack of reticulated electricity was also a barrier with need to use generators for all powertools during construction.
  • The Papakāinga has become an exemplar for building on remote and unserviced sites, with few Māori land blocks in Northland facing more physical development challenges.

Key Learnings – What Would We Do Differently?

  • Application of Matauranga Māori in planning and design
  • Protection of Puna wai (ancestral spring) as the source of ‘waiora’ / high quality drinking water for all whare
  • Edible landscapes and sustainable food production techniques
  • Mixed development – 1, 2,3, and 4 bedroom whare allowing for a mix of all ages and whānau sizes
  • House plans which have been designed around ‘ki te hau kāinga’ the Māori housing design guide
  • North facing decks in all designs encourage use of outdoor areas and safe play areas for tamariki
  • No fences between dwellings – communal maintenance plan instituted to cover all mowing