Pūkaki Papakāinga

MIHI / PEPEHA                                                                                                       

Ko Pūkaki me Makaurau ngā marae,
Ko Te Mānukanuka ō Hoturoa te moana,
Ko Te Ākitai te hapū
Ko Te Waiohua te iwi
Ko Reremoana Te Māhia Rauwhero (nee Wirihana Takānini) te tūpuna whaea


Pūkaki is our tūrangawaewae. Our housing project will re-establish a major part of the papakāinga of our parents and our grandparents. We will bring our children and our grandchildren back here to nurture our whenua and our marae. In turn, they will be nurtured by their tūrangawaewae and their whakapapa.

PROJECT SUMMARY                                                                                              

At the heart of the Pūkaki Papakāinga project is the alienation of a whānau from their tupuna whenua at Pūkaki and their deeply held desire to come home together.

The site is part of a much larger original Te Ākitai landholding on the northern shores of the Manukau Harbour (Te Manukanuka a Hoturoa). This remnant papakāinga site is adjoined by the Pūkaki Marae (opened in 2004) to the south, the Pūkaki and Waokauri creeks to the south west and south east and a hapū urupa to the North. Two puna are also located on the whenua and these are to be remediated for ‘waiora’ use by the hapū as part of the re-establishment of the papakāinga. This development site is unique in that the land already has the infrastructure services of the sewerage and storm water systems, water reticulation, power supply and telephone cables in place.      

In 1985 an Order Constituting a Trust set up the Pūkaki Trust under Section 438(5) of the Māori Affairs Act 1953. Five trustees were appointed to administer the Trust and “to provide for the use and management of...” the Māori Freehold land known as Parish of Manurewa Allotment 156 (Part) DP 117659. The trustees of the 2.173 hectare block represent the Clark, Marshall, and Rauwhero whānau - descendents of the tupuna whaea and original owner, Māhia Takaānini (Reremoana Te Māhia Rauwhero). Under Te Ture Whenua Act 1993, the Trust was converted to an Ahu Whenua Trust.

The Trust was set up during a time of major activity throughout Waikato and the tribe’s endeavours to address the confiscation (raupatu) of more than 1.2 million acres of land from Waikato. Responsibility for raupatu was vested in the Tainui Māori Trust Board set up in 1945. Te Ākitai was one of the thirty-three hapū represented on the board and the hapū was intimately involved in the research and debate that ultimately led to the Deed of Settlement between Waikato-Tainui and the Crown being signed on Turangawaewae Marae 22 May 1995. The knowledge and awareness of Māori land management and retention gained from those experiences brought a focus once again on Te Ākitai land issues. This, in turn, led to increased efforts by the marae committees of Makaurau and Pūkaki to address their own land issues, including the policies and land laws responsible for the collapse of Pūkaki Marae and their associated papakāinga.

As of March 2014, three x 2 bedroom duplex units, 1 x 3 bedroom house, 1 x 4 bedroom house and 2 x 5 bedroom houses have been completed, with construction on stage 2 to commence later this year.


 Project Name
Pūkaki Papakāinga
 Year Completed
Construction commenced March 2013
 Iwi / Hapū
Te Ākitai, Te Waiohua
 Rohe / Location
Māngere, Tāmaki Makaurau
 District Council / Zoning status
Auckland Council – Papakāinga Zone
 Ownership structure
All houses are owned by the Pūkaki Ahuwhenua Trust and rented to specific beneficiaries of the Trust.
 Site area
2.17 ha 
The project is undertaking a staged process of development where stage one will have 10 dwellings built consisting of three x 2 bedroom duplex units, 1 x 3 bedroom house, 1 x 4 bedroom house and 2 x 5 bedroom houses
Timber frame on concrete slabs, brick veneer with weatherboard feature claddings
Construction method
Ehome technique with all walls prefabricated (with cladding and linings) and craned into position
Construction costs
$1300 – $1400 per square metre
Whānau project team
Julie Wade - Pūkaki Ahuwhenua Trust Chair Person
Leaha Clark - Co-project manager
Stephanie Wade - Co-ordinator 
Construction Project Manager
New Zealand Housing Foundation
 Lead architect / designer
Project status
Stage 2 to be completed 2017.
Key contact
Leaha Clarke - leahaclarke@hotmail.com

PROJECT DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND                                             

In early 2009 kaumātua William Rauwhero called a meeting of the Trust and whānau to update beneficiaries on the proposal on which he had been working over the previous 2 years. He was supported by Malcolm Wara, an experienced iwi housing consultant, and Fred Van der Sande, a developer and project management consultant. They had been working with Pauline Tangohau from Te Puni Kōkiri’s head office in Wellington and had accepted an offer of service from Rau Hoskins of designTRIBE to produce a papakāinga housing development proposal for Pūkaki Trust. That report was completed and submitted to the Trust members and whānau in July 2009.

The proposal presented options for an 18 dwelling integrated papakāinga master plan which included four different house types (2-5 bedrooms). The 18 dwellings proposed consisted of three pairs of 2 bedroom duplex kaumātua flats with shared driveways and entry courtyards with all other houses to be fully self-contained. The masterplan also featured communal gardening and recreation areas, pedestrian links to Pūkaki Marae, and, most importantly, no fences between dwellings, which enabled and required a communal maintenance plan.

In 2010, following a meeting with Central Government officials, the trust set up a housing project team.

  • William Rauwhero - Project Manager
  • Stephanie Wade - Project Coordinator
  • Leaha Clark - Project Administrator
  • Fred Van der Sande - Property Development Consultant
  • Te Aroha Wade - IRD Reporting

A funding agreement with Te Puni Kōkiri was also granted, which has enabled the trust to develop an updated papakāinga housing proposal. The project team organised and administered the numerous meetings and hui with whānau, land owners, and contributing agency personnel and have been suppoted by a range of central government, Māori development and hapū based organisations as follows:

  • Pauline Tangohau - Te Puni Kōkiri Head Office, Wellington
  • Tom Kemp - Housing New Zealand Corporation
  • Tamati Olsen - Housing New Zealand Corporation
  • Brian Donnelly - NZ Housing Foundation
  • Rangita Wilson - Huakina Development Trust Housing
  • Maria Graham - Māori Land Court, Ministry of Justice
  • Victoria Kingi - Mangatawa Housing Horaparaikete Whānau, Tauranga
  • Manukau City Council’s staff Ross Brackebush (Senior Consulting Engineer) and Karen McAulay (Senior Policy Analyst) were also assigned to the project to deal with resource consents and policy issues.

Sadly William Rauwhero passed away in December 2010 and new co project managers were appointed namely Leaha Clark and Brian Donnelly (NZ Housing Foundation). Julie Wade has primarily assumed the mantle of Hapū leadership for the project since William’s passing.


Key Outcomes

  • Te Ākitai as Manawhenua being central to all decision making and planning processes down to detailed house design features and material choices.
  • Unity of the 3 branches of the whānau and their ability to work together with the wider project team toward the common goal.
  • Effective project management, a skilled cross disciplinary project team and multi government agency support. All of these dimensions took time to build (4 years) to the levels which have eventually combined to ensure the project is fully funded and signed off by Housing New Zealand Corporation (HNZC) and the Social Housing Unit.
  • Networking and relationship building undertaken by hapū members with Manukau City officials over the last 20 years.
  • Maintenance of key relationships with individuals in the Auckland Council who were able to direct other Auckland Council staff to provide assistance to the papakāinga development team.
  • Communications – Clear and transparent communications process – keeping all whānau members updated with progress, holding regular hui and including the establishment of a website and facebook page.

Key Challenges

  • A critical barrier was funding with the affordability of the loans required for the larger (4 and 5 bedroom) Papakāinga homes. Here it was essential that the whare were able to be designed around existing whānau dynamics and demographics (as opposed to income thresholds) with the need to accommodate more adults and more children per whare. This financial barrier was eventually overcome with the critical assistance of the New Zealand housing foundation who were able to put together a 10 dwelling stage 1 loan and grant package which could be supported by HNZC and the ASB Trust.